Stability of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is multifactorial as it depends on limb alignment, interaction of the surrounding muscles, the osseous architecture of the patella and the trochlea, and the integrity of the medial soft tissue constraints of which the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the main component.
Osteochondral lesions of the talus were described as early as 1922, by Kappis1. These lesions can frequently lead to pain, functional limitations, and disability2-4, and management of symptomatic lesions remains a challenge. Patients typically complain of ankle pain, intermittent swelling, weakness, stiffness, and ankle instability.
The purpose of this study was to utilize data from the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) database to investigate: (1) current treatment trends in patellofemoral instability vs past years (2) the variations in treatment based on regions in the United States and (3) procedures preferred by the surgeon based on fellowship training.
The glenohumeral (GH) joint allows motion in multiple planes. Stability is conferred by both static stabilizers (glenoid concavity, labrum, capsule and ligamentous restraints) and dynamic (scapular and rotator cuff) stabilizers.
A hinge joint comprised of the humerus, ulna and radius. The most proximal extent of the ulna ends as the bony olecranon process. Superficial to the olecranon is the olecranon bursa, a fluid-filled sac, which reduces friction between soft tissue layers.
The Lisfranc joint represents the junction between the midfoot and forefoot. Three metatarsal-cuneiform articulations (first, second, and third tarsometatarsal joints) and two metatarsalcuboid articulations (fourth and fifth tarsometatarsal joints) (Fig. 194-1). Proper alignment and stability of these joints are essential for normal foot function.